As head taxes failed to curb Chinese immigration, the federal government passed an Act in 1923, by which no person of Chinese origin was permitted to enter Canada. During the period of exclusion from 1923 to 1947, many Chinese in Canada had to endure the hardship of separation from their family members in China. The 1941 Census reported that about 47% of Canada’s 35,000 Chinese lived in 5 metropolitan cities: Vancouver (7,880), Victoria (3,435), Toronto (2,559), Montreal (1,865), and Winnipeg (762). Over 90% of the metropolitan Chinese population resided in and near Chinatowns. Chinese immigrants had come mainly from 8 counties on the western side of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province: 66% from Siyi (Four Counties), 16% from Sanyi (Three Counties), 9% from Zhongshan County, and the remaining 9% from various other counties.